Sweet Syndrome in an Adolescent Patient With Differentiation Syndrome Secondary to Promyelocytic Leukemia Treatment With All-Trans Retinoic Acid

Jorge Luis Ramírez, Rosa Margarita Cruz Osorio, Jessica Santoyo Cueva, Fernando Sanchez Zubieta, Pablo Alejandro Chavez, Luis Tonatiuh Fernandez Mendoza, Felipe de Jesus Bustos Rodriguez, Christian David Burbano Figueroa, Johana Alexandra Burbano Figueroa


Sweet syndrome (SS) is an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis that is histologically characterized by an infiltration of the dermis by neutrophils. A 12-year-old adolescent female patient recently diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia presented with fever and was hospitalized for antibiotic management after 22 days of being treated with a treatment protocol based on daunorubicin, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), and prophylaxis with dexamethasone, the patient developed erythematous skin lesions located mostly on the extremities. Lesions evolved into painful subcutaneous nodules, and one lesion evolved into a 2.5-cm blister with a purple and necrotic base. A skin biopsy was performed and showed neutrophilic dermatosis which confirmed the diagnosis of SS. The patients clinical features complied with criteria for differentiation syndrome complicated by shock. Two days after ATRA was suspended, the patient presented resolution of the fever and skin lesions. SS is a rare neutrophilic dermatosis secondary to an innate immune disorder classified into four categories: classical (idiopathic), para-inflammatory, paraneoplastic or pregnancy-related. SS has been described in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in adults secondary to the use of drugs such as ATRA or as a part of a paraneoplastic syndrome. SS can occur exceptionally in children with myeloid leukemia secondary to the use of drugs such as ATRA.

J Med Cases. 2021;12(12):469-473
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jmc3758


Sweet syndrome; Dermatosis; Promyelocytic leukemia; Children

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