Immunocompetent Patient With Primary Bone Marrow Hodgkin Lymphoma

Armaan Dhaliwal, Vanessa F. Eller, Jeffrey J. Pu


Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a hematologic malignancy that comprises about 10% of all lymphomas with the most common type being classical HL (cHL). The typical clinical presentation of cHL involves multiple region lymphadenopathy and a chest mass found on imaging. However, not all patients present with the typical symptomology of cHL which poses a diagnostic challenge. Extranodal HL, especially primary bone marrow HL (PBMHL), has been described in immunocompromised patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this case report, we present a PBMHL case in an immunocompetent patient with no HIV exposure. We discuss a 51-year-old immunocompetent female who presented with 2 - 3 months of fever, confusion, generalized myalgias, and fatigue. She had no lymphadenopathy on physical exam. On further testing, the patients blood work demonstrated cytopenia and imaging confirmed no lymphadenopathy. Eventually, a bone marrow evaluation established her diagnosis of PBMHL. The patient expired after receiving one cycle of a modified chemotherapy regimen. This case illustrates that HL can be associated with an atypical clinical presentation which may delay diagnosis and treatment. PBMHL can occur in the normal population who is not immunocompromised nor HIV positive. In this situation, the best diagnostic approach is a thorough medical history, physical exam, and bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. Presence of constitutional symptoms without any lymphadenopathy or chest mass should raise the concern for possible atypical HL such as PBMHL. Accurate and timely identification of PBMHL allows for timely initiation of appropriate therapy. While cHL is responsive to chemotherapy, further research is required to improve the therapy for PBMHL.

J Med Cases. 2022;13(9):427-431


Hodgkin lymphoma; Atypical Hodgkin lymphoma; Primary bone marrow Hodgkin lymphoma; HIV

Full Text: HTML PDF

Browse  Journals  


Journal of Clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics


World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology


Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity


Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research


Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics



Journal of Medical Cases, monthly, ISSN 1923-4155 (print), 1923-4163 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                     
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website:   editorial contact:
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the published articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of the editors and Elmer Press Inc. This website is provided for medical research and informational purposes only and does not constitute any medical advice or professional services. The information provided in this journal should not be used for diagnosis and treatment, those seeking medical advice should always consult with a licensed physician.