Fatal Meningitis and Sepsis Caused by Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

Olga M. Klibanov, Heather Kehr, Zanesha Jeter, Tabugbo Ekwonu


The rates of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) invasive disease have been increasing since the introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, but its significance in adults is unclear. A 33-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was admitted for fever and acute confusion. The day prior to admission he presented to another emergency department for nausea, vomiting and diarrhea where he was thought to have food poisoning and was sent home. Ten days prior to admission, his primary physician thought his nasopharyngitis symptoms were due to the common cold. The patients HIV had been controlled on antiretroviral therapy for the past 3 years; 1 month prior to admission his viral load was undetectable. Laboratory evaluation on admission was significant for elevated lactic acid and CD4+ cell count of less than 200. A head computed tomography (CT) was unremarkable, but a lumbar puncture was consistent with bacterial meningitis. Neisseria meningitidis was suspected and the patient was placed on empiric antibiotics. Shortly after admission the patient was intubated and suffered a cardiac arrest. The patient was placed on vasopressor support after circulation returned; a repeat head CT showed increased swelling of his brain. An electroencephalogram (EEG) indicated complete suppression of activity and the patient expired on day 2 of hospitalization. After the patients death, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures reported as positive for Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) and sent to the state lab where it was further classified as NTHi, biotype I. NTHi strains can cause invasive disease in adults and should be considered as a potential pathogen for meningitis and bacteremia.

J Med Cases. 2022;13(8):396-401
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jmc3974


Haemophilus influenzae; Meningitis; Bacteremia; HIV disease

Full Text: HTML PDF

Browse  Journals  


Journal of Clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics


World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology


Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity


Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research


Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics



Journal of Medical Cases, monthly, ISSN 1923-4155 (print), 1923-4163 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                     
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website: www.journalmc.org   editorial contact: editor@journalmc.org
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the published articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of the editors and Elmer Press Inc. This website is provided for medical research and informational purposes only and does not constitute any medical advice or professional services. The information provided in this journal should not be used for diagnosis and treatment, those seeking medical advice should always consult with a licensed physician.