A Case of Delayed COVID-19-Related Macrophage Activation Syndrome

Abdelnassir Abdelgabar, Mohammed Elsayed

Abstract


Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory illness, clinical experiences have shown that almost no system is exempted. The severity of the disease can also range from mild presentation with complaints such as headache, aches and pains, taste and sense of smell disturbances to a more severe presentation with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that necessitate admission to intensive care units. In such severe presentation, hypercytokinemia, typically found in cytokine storm syndrome (CSS), particularly macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is often present. CSS can result from diverse, heterogeneous conditions of different clinical phenotypes, such as infections, hematological, rheumatological or iatrogenic conditions leading to systemic hyperinflammation. Some clinical and laboratory findings may give clues to such a highly lethal syndrome and allow early diagnosis and introduction of effective therapy. In this case we describe a COVID-19 pneumonia patient who was discharged home following improvement in his respiratory symptoms to present few days later with a fatal form of CSS, presenting with ARDS, fulminant hepatic failure and coagulopathy.




J Med Cases. 2022;13(5):207-211
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jmc3903

Keywords


Cytokines storm syndrome; Macrophage activation syndrome; COVID-19; Hyperinflammatory syndrome

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