A Continuous Increase in CXC-Motif Chemokine Ligand 10 in a Case of Anti-Nuclear Matrix Protein-2-Positive Juvenile Dermatomyositis

Tsunehisa Nagamori, Emi Ishibazawa, Yoichiro Yoshida, Kengo Izumi, Masayuki Sato, Yuki Ichimura, Naoko Okiyama, Ichizo Nishino, Hiroshi Azuma


Anti-nuclear matrix protein-2 (NXP2) antibody is associated with the severe, chronic myositis phenotype in juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Although hyperproduction of type I interferon is considered to play an important role in JDM, sequential changes in biomarkers associated with this pathophysiology have not yet been described in detail. An 8-year-old boy who presented with muscle weakness, heliotrope rash, and Gottrons papules was diagnosed with JDM. With regard to myositis-specific autoantibodies, anti-NXP2 was detected. Although the increase of serum myogenic enzymes was modest at onset, two courses of methyl-prednisolone (mPSL) pulse therapy followed by oral prednisolone and methotrexate were insufficient to initiate remission. Therefore, additional treatment, with intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVCY) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was required to obtain a favorable outcome. We also retrospectively evaluated serum concentration of several cytokines: interleukin (IL)-6, soluble tumor necrotizing factor receptor (sTNFR)-1, sTNFR-2, IL-18, and CXC-motif chemokine ligand (CXCL)-10. The cytokine profile of this patient at onset showed a CXCL-10-dominant pattern. Additionally, sequential evaluation of CXCL-10 revealed an aberrantly high level of CXCL-10 persistent despite two courses of mPSL pulse therapy, and the level of this cytokine only gradually decreased after initiation of IVCY and IVIG. The hyperproduction of CXCL-10, presumably reflecting the hyperproduction of type I interferon in the affected tissue, may persist for a certain period, even after the initiation of multiple courses of mPSL pulse therapy. With regard to the fact that anti-NXP2 is associated with subcutaneous calcification, our data suggest the importance of aggressive intervention in cases of anti-NXP2-positive JDM as well as the need for the development of a more pathophysiologically specific treatment.

J Med Cases. 2022;13(6):290-296
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jmc3940


Juvenile dermatomyositis; Anti-nuclear matrix protein-2 antibody; CXC-motif chemokine ligand 10; Type I interferon

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