Functionality of Monoclonal Antibody Therapy in SARS-CoV-2

Ruhma Ali, Aditya Patel, Muhammad A. Waqas, Krunal Trivedi, Jihad Slim

Abstract


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emerged as a world crisis in 2019 and started a global search for optimal therapeutic regimen including vaccines, antiviral agents, and recently monoclonal antibody therapy. Clinical trials are currently underway for the efficacy of several neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against COVID-19. The evolution of new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants with immune evasion capacity has created a challenge for the healthcare workers with urgent need for prospective studies to determine functionality of monoclonal antibody therapy and their role in the reduction of hospitalization for disease severity. Herein, we report three cases of COVID-19 during the beginning of the spread of Omicron variants that were hospitalized after treatment with monoclonal antibody therapy in the emergency department. All the patients showed progression of the disease on imaging and were treated with dexamethasone, remdesivir and anticoagulation based on the symptoms and contraindications. Two of the patients recovered and were discharged with out-patient follow-up; however, one patient expired in the hospital. Monoclonal antibody therapy is a promising treatment to limit the progression of COVID-19 and reduce the hospital strain specifically in small community hospitals. Limited information is available about their efficacy in the new viral variants. These cases emphasize the need of future prospective study and randomized controlled trials to illustrate the utilization of monoclonal antibodies as a therapeutic modality in patients infected with the variants of SARS-CoV-2.




J Med Cases. 2022;13(8):380-385
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jmc3968

Keywords


Monoclonal antibody therapy; COVID-19 treatment; Omicron; Viral variants; Chest X-ray

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