An Unusual Etiology: Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Resulting in Transient Apical Ballooning Syndrome

Steven Imburgio, Anmol Johal, Ndausung Udongwo, Sherif Eltawansy, Vandan Upadhyaya, Mohammad Raza


Intracranial bleeds, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, carry high morbidity and mortality rates. Often intracranial hemorrhages result in debilitating residual neurological symptoms but can be so extensive that cardiac complications can also be seen. We present a rare case of a patient who was found to have a subarachnoid hemorrhage that incited the development of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, which subsequently progressed to an acute myocardial infarction. The aim of this case report is to explore the underlying pathophysiology of how cerebral hemorrhage can result in apical ballooning of the left ventricle through various mechanisms including sympathetic-induced surge in catecholamines and neurogenic damage to the myocardium. We also intend to highlight the importance for clinicians to consider brain bleeds in the differential diagnosis when a patient presents with an acute myocardial infarction as treatment with heparin is generally contraindicated.

J Med Cases. 2022;13(11):541-544


Takotsubo cardiomyopathy; Transient apical ballooning syndrome; Myocardial infarction; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Cerebral aneurysm; Syncope; Catecholamine surge

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