A Case Report of a Challenging Disease: Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease With Acute Kideny Injury

Mostafa Mohrag, Mohammed Abdulrasak, Mohammed Binsalman, Majid Darraj


Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD), which was initially identified as a type of autoimmune pancreatitis around the year 2000, is now widely acknowledged to be a systemic sickness. Based on both general and organ-specific criteria, alongside laboratory measurements of IgG4-subtype, the diagnosis is made. The diagnosis requires, however, a heightened index of suspicion, especially given the nonspecific clinical presentation. In addition to this, the symptoms may be disseminated in time and the multitude of organ-system involvement may seem initially unrelated. Furthermore, IgG4 levels may be falsely normal especially during the first presentation of IgG4-RD. We report a case of a 33-year-old male who was referred by his general practitioner (GP) to the fast access nephrology clinic due to elevated creatinine and fatigue, which was found after the patient had undergone some investigations at the GP office. He had history of atopic dermatitis and a prior admission for acute pancreatitis of unknown cause and recent bilateral anterior uveitis treated with steroid eyedrops. His urinalysis showed one to two granular casts per high-power field (HPF), and his creatinine was 262 mol/L (previously normal). Three main differential diagnoses were considered given the patients history: sarcoidosis, tubulointerstitial nephritis with uveitis (TINU) and IgG4-related disorder. Investigations were undertaken in that regard showing elevated serum IgG4 levels (2.7 times upper-limit of normal). Renal biopsy demonstrated tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) with 30 IgG4-positive plasma cells per HPF. Given the patients presentation over time, a diagnosis of IgG4-TIN was considered. The patient was treated with high-dose steroids and has shown signs of improvement of both his renal and ocular problems. The uniqueness of the case is reflected through the fact that IgG4-renal disease is usually diagnosed in patients with an already established manifestation of another organ, whilst in our patient the renal involvement led to establishing IgG4-RD. It is also important to note that, in spite of initially negative serum IgG4 levels, the diagnosis still needs to be considered especially if multisystem involvement is present (as in this case).

J Med Cases. 2023;14(9-10):339-343
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jmc4159


IgG4-related disease; IgG-TIN; Acute kidney injury

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